By the end of the school year, all students should be able to:
■ Read and write numbers through 1 trillion (1,000,000,000,000).
■ Locate rational numbers (numbers that can be expressed as fractions or ratios) on a number line. For example, 1/4 can be shown as 0.25 on a number line.
■ Represent rational numbers in different ways. For example, 1/2 also can be shown as a decimal (0.50) or as a percent (50 percent).
■ Add, subtract, multiply, and divide fractions and mixed numbers with unlike denominators. For example, 1/4 + 1/2 = 3/4 and 2¾ − 1½ = 1¼.
■ Find the area (the surface within the sides) of regular polygons (shapes in which all sides are the same length and all angles are the same measure) and irregular polygons.
■ Find the circumference (distance around) and area of a circle.
■ Identify customary units of capacity, such as cups, pints, quarts, or gallons as well as metric units of capacity, such as milliliters, cubic centimeters, or liters.
■ Solve simple proportions. For example, solve the proportion 4:x = 5:25. (Five is one-fifth of 25, so four has to have the same proportion or be one-fifth of x. Four is one-fifth of 20, so 4:20=5:25.)
■ Read and interpret graphs.
■ Use a variety of ways to represent and solve problems. For example, use algebraic expressions or use a table.
Learning at Home
With your child, visit the Rose Center for Earth and Space at the American Museum of Natural History, www.amnh.org/rose, on the Upper West Side, locate images of space at www.nasa.gov, or find books on astronomy at the New York Public Library, kids.nypl.org. Talk about the very large numbers used to describe the universe and solar system.
Encourage your child to play board games, such as chess and backgammon, with you and other family members. Board games help develop children’s discipline, critical thinking, and problem-solving skills. Visit the Chess in the Schools Web site, www.chessintheschools.org, to find out about their programs in New York City schools.
Invite your child to explore “Figure This,” www.figurethis.org/index.html, a Web site from the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics that offers challenges, ideas, and resources to help children and families enjoy and use math.