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PREFACE
This volume contains the first New York City edition of the New Standards™ Performance Standards for Mathematics. The standards set out in this volume establish the same high expectations for student performance as those published by New Standards—the standards are unchanged from those published by New Standards. What distinguishes this edition is the collection of student work samples included to illustrate the meaning of standard-setting work. The collection has been revised extensively to reflect work produced by students studying in New York City’s public schools.

This volume of the New York City edition of the standards focuses exclusively upon Mathematics. The first New York City edition of the New Standards™ Performance Standards for Language Arts was published in 1998. Volumes focusing upon Science and Applied Learning are in preparation.

ABOUT NEW STANDARDS
New Standards was established in 1991 as a collaboration of the Learning Research and Development Center at the University of Pittsburgh and the National Center on Education and the Economy, in partnership with states and urban school districts. The Board of Education of the City of New York was a member of the New Standards partnership from its inception. The New Standards partners set out to build an assessment system to measure student progress toward meeting national standards at levels that are internationally benchmarked. The performance standards are one of the major products of the New Standards partnership. Support for the development of the performance standards was provided by the Pew Charitable Trusts, the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, the William T. Grant Foundation, and the New Standards partners.

The New Standards Governing Board included chief state school officers, governors and their representatives, and others representing the diversity of the partnership, whose jurisdictions enroll nearly half of the Nation’s students. These performance standards were endorsed unanimously by the New Standards Governing Board in June 1996.

The New Standards partnership formally ended in June 1997. Continuing research and development, and technical assistance to support implementation of the products of New Standards, are managed by the National Center on Education and the Economy on behalf of the National Center and the University of Pittsburgh.

ABOUT THE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS
New Standards adopted the distinction between content standards and performance standards that is articulated in Promises to Keep: Creating High Standards for American Students (1993), a report commissioned by the National Education Goals Panel. Content standards specify “what students should know and be able to do”; performance standards go the next step to specify “how good is good enough.”
These standards are designed to make content standards operational by answering the question: how good is good enough?

The performance standards for Mathematics were based directly on the content standards produced by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (1989). (See “Mathematics”)