The middle school standards are set at a level of performance approximately equivalent to the end of eighth grade. It is expected that some students might achieve this level earlier and others later than this grade. (See “Deciding what constitutes a standard-setting performance.”)

Physical Sciences Concepts
  a Demonstrates understanding of properties and changes of properties in matter.
  b Demonstrates understanding of position and motion and forces.
  c Demonstrates understanding of transfer of energy and the nature of a chemical reaction.
Life Sciences Concepts
  a Demonstrates understanding of structure and function in living systems.
  b Demonstrates understanding of reproduction and heredity and the role of genes and environment on trait expression.
  c Demonstrates understanding of regulation and behavior and response to environmental stimuli.
  d Demonstrates understanding of populations and ecosystems and the effects of resources and energy transfer on populations.
e Demonstrates understanding of evolution, diversity, and adaptation of organisms.
Earth and Space Sciences Concepts
  a Demonstrates understanding of structure of the Earth system.
  b Demonstrates understanding of Earth’s history.
  c Demonstrates understanding of Earth in the Solar System.
d Demonstrates understanding of natural resource management.
Scientific Connections and Applications
  a Demonstrates understanding of big ideas and unifying concepts.
  b Demonstrates understanding of the designed world.
  c Demonstrates understanding of health.
  d Demonstrates understanding of impact of technology.
e Demonstrates understanding of impact of science.
Scientific Thinking
  a Frames questions to distinguish cause and effect; and identifies or controls variables.
  b Uses concepts from Science Standards 1 to 4 to to explain a variety of observations and phenomena.
  c Uses evidence from reliable sources to to develop descriptions, explanations, and models.
  d Proposes, recognizes, analyzes, considers, and critiques alternative explanations; and distinguishes between fact and opinion.
  e Identifies problems; proposes and implements solutions; and evaluates the accuracy, design, and outcomes of investigations.
  f Works individually and in teams to to collect and share information and ideas.
Scientific Tools and Technologies
  a Uses technology and tools to observe and measure objects, organisms, and phenomena, directly, indirectly, and remotely.
  b Records and stores data using a variety of formats.
  c Collects and analyzes data using concepts and techniques in Mathematics Standard 4.
d Acquires information from multiple sources.
e Recognizes sources of bias in data.
Scientific Communication
  a Represents data and results in multiple ways.
  b Argues from evidence.
  c Critiques published materials.
  d Explains a scientific concept or procedure to other students.
e Communicates in a form suited to the purpose and the audience.
Scientific Investigation
  a Demonstrates scientific competence by completing a controlled experiment.
  b Demonstrates scientific competence by completing fieldwork.
  c Demonstrates scientific competence by completing a design.
  d Demonstrates scientific competence by completing secondary research.